An early start of West Nile virus seasonal transmission: the added value of One Health surveillance in detecting early circulation and triggering timely response in Italy, June to July 2018.

Abstract In Italy, the 2018 West Nile virus transmission season started early with a high number of cases reported. One-Health surveillance, within the Italian West Nile national preparedness and response plan, detected viral circulation 9 days before symptom-onset of the first confirmed human case; triggering timely implementation of blood and transplant safety measures. This is […]

Multiple HBV transfusion transmissions from undetected occult infections: revising the minimal infectious dose

Hepatitis B remains a global major public health issue and a viral infection transmissible by transfusion. The risk of HBV transfusion transmitted infection has been reduced by the selection of donors; the continuous improvement of serological assays to detect the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); the implementation of anti-HBc screening for antibodies against the HBV core […]

Epidemiological characteristics of human prion diseases

In the absence of specific therapies for human prion diseases, which are frequently associated with neurodegenerative disorders with fatal outcome, only an active surveillance can be used to monitor and prevent the transmission of such diseases. For this reason, starting from 1993, surveillance systems have been established in many countries. Moreover, there is urgent need […]

False positive viral marker results in blood donors and their unintended consequences

Universal donor screening for the major transfusion relevant viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1/2) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has contributed to the current very low risk of transmitting infectious diseases by transfusion. While contemporary blood donor screening assays have excellent specificity, defined as the probability of giving […]

Emerging therapies for hemophilia: controversies and unanswered questions

Several new therapies for hemophilia have emerged in recent years. These strategies range from extended half-life (EHL) factor replacement products and non-factor options with improved pharmacokinetic profiles to gene therapy aiming for phenotypic cure. While these products have the potential to change hemophilia care dramatically, several challenges and questions remain regarding broader applicability, long-term safety, […]